Parlatoria oleae

       Scale Parlatoria oleae prevalent in many countries: in Western Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, North and South America, and Australia. In the former USSR, mainly in the Crimea and Krasnodar regions, also in the Caucasus and Central Asian republics. It is polyphage infects fruit and fruit trees, ornamental and shrub plantings. In  Azerbaijan mainly damages apple, almonds, pears, plums. Homeland of the pest is probably the Mediterranean coast, Palaearctic. 
       The females and larvae of scale insects suck sap from the leaves, fruit, soft shoots and branches. This is in harm to the fetus, fruit, forest and ornamental plantings. According B.Bazarova and G.P.Shmelёva  it harms plants belonging to 40 families as well. Appear on the fruits (apples, pears, plums) reddish spots. With strong infection weakens the overall development of the plants. The leaves are dried and start to fall, decreasing fertility and fruit quality. At this scale insects infested trees, fruits are formed on red-purple spots, sometimes colonies of scale insects covered with tree trunks so that it is not visible even bark. 
       Azerbaijan has studied some biological and ecological characteristics of this pest. A.T.Imamkulievym in Lenkoran zone studied the biology of this pest, as well as some local entomophages. A.Y. Safarov studied this pest in Absheron  , which is a major pest of olive trees. He studied biological and ecological features of this pest, as well as the effect of certain chemicals on the scale insects. L.M.Rzaeva studied the spread of this pest in eastern Transcaucasia, and in some regions of Azerbaijan. He studied the role of some entomophages the destruction of scale insects. 
       It should be noted pest causes great damage to beekeeping in Guba-Khachmaz region and harm the plants in Absheron.
       In Khachmaz and Absheron hibernate fertilized females of scale insects. Shield of the scale insects oval, sometimes rounded shapes, light, sometimes grayish light, larval shield larger, dark green, brown or black. In females inside switchboards body purple, oval or wide-oval, widest rear chest. Nymphal Shield of males pair of wings, legs, and they are free to move, after fertilization, the females die within 2-3 days. Fertilized females hibernate purple scale insects on trunks and branches of trees, shrubs. Depending on weather conditions, the purple scale insects awakening happens at different times. In II and III decade of March, early April they occur awakening. Scale insects over 10-120S temperatures begin to eat and they are growing. In I and II part , there are the first ten days of May delaying the female egg. Eggs are oval, purple. Egg laying is a long process that lasts about 30-35 days. After egg-laying females lose their form, they are dead. At this scale insects opportunity lay their eggs varied. The number of eggs depends on the location and on the plant is not the same. Depending on the plants and their agencies the ability to lay eggs at the scale insects can be different. A.D.Arhangelski specified number of eggs not more than 50. According N.S.Borhseniusa lays about 70 eggs.
       A.Imamkuliev studying the different plants (Caspian honey locust, apple, plum and wormwood) notes that the possibility of laying eggs per female is 33 to 96-minute pieces. According to our data on almonds and olives met 90 – 100 eggs.
       The embryonic development of eggs 8-10 days. Primary “wandering larvae.” hatch in the II decade of May. The mass of the birth of the larvae begins in the III decade of May, continues to I half of June. The shape of these larvae oval, the color purple. The larvae have legs and antennae, move freely. They are very sensitive. The use of chemical insecticides against this pest in the month of May gives a positive effect. This is due to the fact that in this month’s “wandering larva” will hatch in large quantities. Due to the fact that they are very small, their distribution is very extensive. The larvae are spread by air, water, wind and birds that feed on insects. After about 3-4 hours of active driving, they are attached to the trunk of a plant tissue, 1-1.5 day larval body is covered yarns, and thus there is a primary shield. Once attached to the plants, they flatten and make a rounded shape. The larvae secrete secretory waxy substance. From this substance in the air appear thread. 1,5-2 days out of these threads formed the primary shield. Under this shield clearly shows the body of the larvae. Stray larvae live on plant surfaces, are attached to the soft spot. They gather around the peduncle, about shoots and veins of leaves.
       After 18-20 days the larvae of I instar molt, larvae II revived age. During this period, females and males under cover inside the shield body and differ from each other. The females have a round shield, while males lengthened. Inside switchboards body in females has a color light reddish purple, and males dark red-purple color. Larvae II age during 20-25 days turn into developing young individuals and males in the nymph. After about 45-50 days of developing males begin to fly. After fertilization, the females are killed. Intensive male flight lasts 12-14 days, they mostly fly in the morning and evening hours. Sometimes in 30-35 days there are separate individuals. After mating, females during 10-15 days begin to lay eggs. Development of the 1st spring generation lasts 60-65 days. 
       Egg laying starts in 2 generations I and II decade of July. Mass oviposition begins in II and III decade of July. In July, it begins a massive larval period, at which time the chemical fight against these pests can have a positive effect. Because the larvae are very sensitive to chemical insecticides, they die in large quantities. After 6-7 days of embryonic development, hatching “wandering larvae” in 10-15 days celebrated a mass exit. Through short free movement, they move to a sedentary lifestyle and turn into larvae of I age. After a 20-day development, they move into larvae II age. The I-II decade of September there are young individuals females and males fly. After fertilization, the males die. Females begin to hibernate. After fertilization, the female expand their guard. Due to the low temperature expansion of the board compared to the spring low.