In a democracy, a young, independent republic of Azerbaijan for a long and dynamic development of agriculture is conducted on a global program launched by the government. To meet all the needs of the population with food currently is fighting for the establishment of the abundance of food on a large scale. But it should be noted that without a pest of crops, there can be no question of the quantity and quality of products. For the destruction of crop pests, apply various chemicals – insecticides, which lead to pollution of the environment, an environmental imbalance, is harmful to the human body, and accumulates in the grown agricultural products. As a result, these products are harmful to the human body, which can cause cancer, allergic diseases.
Conducted in recent years, chemical pest control of crops, causing tremendous damage to the environment, appears an imbalance of the environment. The use of chemical methods against agricultural crops, although kills some pests, but pollutes the soil and the environment. In modern conditions for pest and diseases agricultural crops used an integrated method of combat. This struggle is held together with agro-technical, chemical, microbiological, biological and mechanical methods. It should be noted that one method of struggle integrated does not deny the other, contrary they operate together and create the conditions for each other. In winter, when the plants are relatively deep in the late phase, it is necessary to burn the collected fallen leaves, fruits and dry branches, as well as to treat the soil and remove weeds , otherwise no chemical and biological control will not give effective results. The basis of the struggle is integrated biological control where the maximum benefit entomophagous (parasites and predators) are in nature. These Entomophages used against pests of agricultural crops. Applying biological control of natural resources entomophages exclude the possibility of contamination of the soil and the environment from chemicals. In the application of chemicals in the fight against agricultural pests, don’t have control, do not follow instructions; Thus, not only kill pests of agricultural crops, as well as their enemies (parasites, predators) that naturally reduce their numbers. As a result the useful parasites and predators die in large numbers. Using the uncontrolled chemicals in large scales doesn’t have useful effects.
Pests get used to these drugs and develop even more. From the foregoing, it should be noted that it is necessary to maximize use of the available naturally entomophagous – parasites and predators, and insecticides to minimize. Using biological controls inhabiting the nature parasites and predators, beneficial fungi and bacteria can successfully destroy the agricultural pests. In this method, the use of selective drugs is brought up to a minimum of environmental pollution.
In nature, there are various agricultural pests which reduce the quality and quantity of these crops. Sucking pests, using the juice of plants and gardens – ornamental plants, inflict enormous damage to agriculture. These pests include scale insects, and floury Coccidae scale insects. These scale insects suck out juice of of plants, their leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely, and the young shoots and branches are deformed, bent, plant cells do not develop, disturbed water metabolism. Sucking pests, suck out juice of plants, violate the development of plant tissues due to contaminated leaves and developing fungi. Disrupted the process of photosynthesis, plants fertility declines, sometimes even dry fruits (with strong infection). A damaged agricultural crops with these pests, reduced quantitative and qualitative indicators. Annually they lose their fertility from damage by sucking agricultural pests. In nature, there are beneficial insects that destroy these pests, reduced their numbers. It should be noted that the use of entomophagous (predators and parasites) against sucking pests is one of the main and most important methods of struggle. Aphelinidae related to parasitic Hymenoptera, are effective entomophages pests –scales, armored scales aphids and aleyrodides. Aphelinus mali being an effective bioagents plays an enormous role in lowering the number of blood aphids. Encarsia berlesei reduces the number of mulberry scale insects. Despite this ecology and host-parasite relationships of these entomophagous is studied no detail (and do not have information of economic value).
One of the important questions in the fauna of Azerbaijan, is the study of the species composition of these entomophagous and their role in regulating the populations of these pests. To study the application of entomophagous biological control, struggle against sucking pests belonging to the Homoptera – scale insects, Coccidae, aphids and whiteflies – should study in detail their species composition, biological and ecological features, as well as of the local fauna existing parasites and predators that play a special role in the regulation the dynamics of populations of these pests. The main objective of the research work is to study in Azerbaijan common Homoptera sucking pests that infect agricultural crops and gardens – ornamental plants. Study their species composition, malware, distribution, identification, biological features in parallel with this we must identify and determine the species composition, biological and ecological features and role in the decline of these parasites and predators of native fauna. After studying these questions they can be used in biological control against these pests.